The birthstone for October is opal and tourmaline, the birthflower is the marigold.
Opal's name is derived from the Sanskrit word “upala,” as well as the Greek “opallius,” meaning “change of colour”.
The opal is a fragile hydrated silica material. The varying amounts of water within it determine the appearance of the gemstone: when water evaporates out of an opal, the stone appears slightly smaller and the stress of the evaporation creates cracks on it. The spectacular black opals that sometimes flash green, blue and red get their colour from magnesium oxides and organic carbon within the stone.
It symbolises hope, innocence and purity. It has strong connotations of happiness, faithfulness, loyalty and confidence and is also the theme gift for the 14th and 18th wedding anniversaries.
The name of this gemstone is believed to derive from the Singhalese (Sri Lankan) word “toramalli,” a term applied to yellow, green or brown stones, that means “something little out of the earth.”
Tourmaline is a complex aluminous borosilicate mineral built of crystals with complicated aggregations of sodium, aluminum, boron, oxygen, hydrogen and silicon atoms.
Tourmaline is said to dispel fear, negativity and grief.
Marigolds are in the daisy family and are known as 'the herb of the sun'. They are often favoured to be love charms, a symbol of passion associated with the legendary brave and courageous lion, and creativity.